Morphological study of the foramen transversarium of the atlas vertebra among Egyptian population and its clinical significance
Aziz, Joseph; Morgan, M.
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Citation:Aziz, J., & Morgan, M. (2018). Morphological Study of the Foramen Transversarium of the Atlas Vertebra among Egyptian Population and Its Clinical Significance. Anatomy Physiology & Biochemistry International Journal, 4(4), 1-5. doi:10.19080/APBIJ.2018.04.555642
Permanent link to Research Bank record:https://hdl.handle.net/10652/4357
BACKGROUND: Foramina transversaria are characteristic bony features of the cervical vertebra, they are located on the transverse process of cervical vertebrae. These foramina are of anatomical importance as they provide bony passages for several anatomical structures namely vertebral artery, vertebral vein and sympathetic nerves. They have known to exhibit variations with regard to size, shape and may even absent, incomplete or duplicated. OBJECTIVE: This study aim to investigate the morphology and variations of foramina transversaria of the human atlas vertebrae and to point out the clinical importance of these variations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 135 atlas vertebrae of Egyptian origin were studied. They were available in the dissecting room of the anatomy department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University. Each vertebra was studied morphologically for the presence of various shapes of foramen transversarium, presence or absences of any morphological anomaly like accessory foramen or incomplete foramen. RESULTS: Four shapes were noted. Type 1 (rounded) was predominant 54.1%, type 2 (oval) less prominent 29.6%, type 3 (irregular) 10.4% and type 4 (quadrangular) 5.8%. Double foramina were founded in 23 vertebras, incomplete foramina in 9 vertebras and accessory incomplete foramina were seen in 12 vertebras. CONCLUSION: The morphological knowledge of this type of variation is clinically important because the course of the vertebral artery may be distorted in such condition. It may be compressed leading to some neurological symptoms or even hearing disturbances. Also, the knowledge of this type of variation is important for the neurosurgeon during posterior surgical approaches of cervical spine. It is also useful for radiologist during CT and MRI scan.