Biculturalism in New Zealand correctional facilities
Laidlaw, Reagan; Schnoor, Christoph
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Citation:Laidlaw, R., & Schnoor, C. (2015, July). Biculturalism in New Zealand Correctional Facilities. In P.Hogben and J.O'Callaghan (Ed.), Proceedings of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand: 32, Architecture, Institutions and Change (pp.319-330).
Permanent link to Research Bank record:https://hdl.handle.net/10652/3342
In New Zealand architecture, notions of biculturalism have been addressed in a slowly increasing manner over the past 30 years. But has architecture in New Zealand taken these notions seriously in institutions, such as correctional facilities, as well? The introduction of the term biculturalism was first linked to New Zealand architecture during the 1970s. This was a period where the significance of Māori art and culture was becoming apparent in New Zealand. This was due largely in part to the migration of Māori from rural areas to the cities, prior to the 1980s, which also coincided with an overall increase in the Māori population. Some bicultural ideas have been incorporated into New Zealand architecture, and this can be seen through notable examples such as John Scott’s Futuna Chapel (1961) and the Māori Battalion Building (1964), however, biculturalism is only recently being seen in institutional architecture around New Zealand. Correctional facilities Ngawha (2005) and Spring Hill Corrections Facility (2007) by Stephenson & Turner have incorporated spatial and design qualities into their designs which are intended to rehabilitate inmates through directly relating to their cultures and beliefs to engage mental, physical and spiritual recovery. This paper suggests that the marae, the traditional Māori meeting house (as one of the few stable remnants of Māori culture over the centuries), has had an effect on the development of bicultural notions in New Zealand prisons. Building on an historical overview of bicultural aspects over the last 150 years, this paper focuses on the recent prison design of Ngawha in Northland in order to trace how notions of biculturalism have been addressed, taking into account the importance of the marae for Māori culture.